Judo 101 Quiz **
- Q. Who was the founder of Judo?
Kanō Jigorō (嘉納 治五郎?, 28 October 1860 – 4 May 1938) was the founder of judo. Judo was the first Japanese martial art to gain widespread international recognition, and the first to become an official Olympic sport. Pedagogical innovations attributed to Kanō include the use of black and white belts, and the introduction of dan ranking to show the relative ranking between members of a martial art style. Well-known mottoes attributed to Kanō include “Maximum Efficiency with Minimum Effort” and “Mutual Welfare and Benefit.”
In his professional life Kanō was an educator. Important postings included serving as director of primary education for the Ministry of Education (文部省, Monbushō?) from 1898–1901, and as president of Tokyo Higher Normal School from 1901 until 1920. He played a key role in getting judo and kendo made part of the Japanese public school programs of the 1910s.
Kanō was also a pioneer of international sports. Accomplishments included being the first Asian member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) (he served from 1909 until 1938); officially representing Japan at most Olympic Games held between 1912 and 1936; and serving as a leading spokesman for Japan’s bid for the 1940 Olympic Games.
His official honors and decorations included the First Order of Merit and Grand Order of the Rising Sun and the Third Imperial Degree. Kanō was inducted into the IJF Hall of Fame on 14 May 1999.
- Q. What is the name of the school he founded?
- Q. What combination of techniques are practiced in Judo?
A. Chokes, arm-locks, hold-downs, throws
- Q. Where do the basics of Judo come from?
- Q. What are the two principals of Kodokan Judo?
A1. Maximum efficiency – Seiryoku Zenyo
A2. Mutual benefit & welfare – Jita Kyoei
Jita Kyoei – Ethics In Judo
Jita Kyoei, commonly translated as “Mutual Benefit & Welfare”, can more accurately be translated as “Going Forward, Shining together”, or, as Phil Porter puts it, “You, Me, Shining Together”. Can anyone think of how this principle would allow you to intentionally do things that are not Judo, to gain an ‘advantage’?
And what have you learned should you be successful? Did your Judo skills allow you to come back victorious, or did your sly, underhanded strategy do so?
- Q. What is Judo’s closest meaning in Japanese?
- Q. What is the date of the founding of Judo?
- Q. What is the ultimate goal of judo as defined by Dr. Kano?
A. The harmonious development and eventual perfection of human character
- Q. What year was judo first introduced into the summer Olympic games?
A. Judo became an Olympic sport for men in the 1964 Games in Tokyo.
Judo Tokyo 1964: Opening Nage-no-Kata Demonstration
in 1964, judo was introduced as an Olympic sport in the Tokyo Olympics, and was reintroduced at the Munich Olympics in 1972
- Q. Sensei
A. Teacher (English equivalent)
- Q. Rei!
A. Bow! (English equivalent)
- Q. Kuzushi
A. Off balance
Usually it had been him that threw me. Now, instead of being thrown, I was throwing him with increasing regularity. I could do this despite the fact that he was of the Kito-ryu school and was especially adept at throwing techniques. This apparently surprised him, and he was quite upset over it for quite a while. What I had done was quite unusual. But it was the result of my study of how to break the posture of the opponent. It was true that I had been studying the problem for quite some time, together with that of reading the opponent’s motion. But it was here that I first tried to apply thoroughly the principle of breaking the opponent’s posture before moving in for the throw…
I told Mr. Iikubo about this, explaining that the throw should be applied after one has broken the opponent’s posture. Then he said to me: “This is right. I am afraid I have nothing more to teach you.”
Soon afterward, I was initiated in the mystery of Kito-ryu jujutsu and received all his books and manuscripts of the school.
- Q. Ukemi
A. Falling Methods (English equivalent)
- Q. O
A. Big or Major (English equivalent)
- Q. Ippon!
A. One point! (referee’s award) (English equivalent)
- Q. Osoto-gari
A. Large Outer Reap Throw (English equivalent)
- Q. O Goshi
A. Large Hip Throw (English equivalent)
O goshi (大腰?, major hip throw) is one of the original 40 throws of Judo as compiled by Jigoro Kano. It belongs to the Dai ikkyo (第一教?, first taught group) of theGokyo-no-waza (五教之技?, five teachings of techniques), of Kodokan Judo. It is also part of the current 67 Throws of Kodokan Judo. It is classified as a koshi-waza (腰技?, hip technique).
In this technique, kuzushi (崩し?, the balance break) is to uke’s front. Tsukuri (作り?, turning/fitting in) involves tori turning his hips, moving them in front and below uke’s hips, with tori’s tsurite (釣手?, lifting (lapel-side) hand)) passing behind uke’s back, usually under uke’s arm, while minimising the amount of space between tori’s back and uke’s chest. Tori’s hikite (引手?, pulling (sleeve-side) hand) pulls uke’s arm to the front, maintaining the balance break. Kake (掛け?, the execution of the throw)involves tori lifting with the hips and bending forward while continuing the pull to the front and down, bringing uke onto the mat at tori’s feet.
O-goshi is known to have existed in the Tenjin Shinyō-ryū traditional school (koryū) of jujutsu, which Jigoro Kano studied prior to founding judo. In Tenjin Shinyō-ryūtexts, the throw is called koshi-nage (腰投?, hip throw) O-goshi was one of the first throwing techniques to be incorporated into judo and was included in the Dai nikyo(第二教?, second taught group) of the 1895 Gokyo-no-waza. In the revised 1920 Gokyo-no-waza, the throw was moved to the Dai ikkyo (第一教?, first taught group)where it remains. O-goshi is often the first throw taught to a beginner as it is relatively simple to throw a compliant partner with control.
- Q. Kata-guruma
A. Shoulder Wheel/fireman’s carry (English equivalent)
Kanō had trouble defeating Fukushima Kanekichi, who was one of his seniors at the school. Therefore, Kanō started trying unfamiliar techniques on his rival. He first tried techniques from sumo. When these did not help, he studied more, and tried a technique (“fireman’s carry”) that he learned from a book on western wrestling. This worked, and kataguruma, or “shoulder wheel”, remains part of the judo repertoire.
- Q. Juji gatame
A. Cross arm lock/Arm Bar (English equivalent)
- Q. Kesa-gatame
A. Scarf Lock/Scarf Hold/Head and Arm (English equivalent)
- Q. Judo Gi
A. Judo uniform (English equivalent)
- Q. Morote-gari
A. Double Leg Take Down/Two Hand Reap (English equivalent)
- Q. Ouchi-gari
A. Large Inner Reap (English equivalent)
- Q. English for the three divisions of mat techniques
A1. Osaekomi Waza (pinning or holding technique)
A2. Shime Waza (Strangulation/Choking Technique)
A3. Kansetsu Waza (Joint Technique)
- Q. List at least 3 things you have learned in Sensei Phu’s Judo Class
- Version 2 – created on May 2, 2010
- Version 3 – created on Dec 12, 2010
- Version 4 – created on Dec 14, 2010
- Version 5 – created on May 11, 2012
- Judo for the Super School of the 21st Century (fusionmma.com)
- 2012 Commonwealth Judo Championships (visitwales.co.uk)
- Israel’s top judo wrestler, Arik Ze’evi, takes European gold (jta.org)
- Marti Malloy: She’s an Olympian and third-degree black belt in judo and toughness (mercurynews.com)
- Ask Jimmy Pedro on Facebook (fusionmma.com)
- Against martial arts (listentothesoundofthesword.wordpress.com)